The German Shepherd is a canine breed that comes from Germany and its origin dates back to the year 1899.

They are part of the herding group, because they were dogs originally developed to gather and monitor sheeps. Since then, thanks to their strength, intelligence, training capacity and obedience, German shepherds from all over the world are often the preferred breed for many other types of work, such as: guard dog, guide of blind persons, animal of rescue, police dog and others, according to the use given by the security forces and the army. In many countries they even have specific units called K-9.

Max von Stephanitz was captain of the German army, and he is considered the father of the dog breed of the German shepherd, because he was the first specimen inscribed Horand von Grafath, a vigorous animal, of firm character, grayish coat and wolflike appearance.

The German shepherd, the result of crossings between shepherds from Thuringia and Württemberg, was created to guard and protect the flocks of rams against the wolves, and later, after the appearance of the Association of Friends of the German Shepherd in 1899, a selection of specimens whose crosses improved both the psychic and physical aspect of the animal.


The breed standard is written in accordance with the official provisions of the VEREIN FÜR DEUTSCHE SCHÄFERHUNDE (SV), a German pro-pastor association based in Augsburg, affiliated with the German Canopy Association (VDH), which in its capacity as creator of the breed is responsible for the breeding standards of the German shepherd dog breed, written during the first meeting of partners in Frankfurt-M, on September 20, 1899, according to the suggestions of A.

Mayer and Von Stephanitz; and with the subsequent modifications agreed upon in the VIth Assembly of Members of July 28, 1901; at the XXIIIth Assembly of Partners in Köln / Rh, on September 17, 1909; the assembly of executives and advisers in Wiesbaden, on September 5, 1930; and of the meeting of the Committee of Breeders and the Board of Directors on March 25, 1961, reviewed all within the framework of the World Union of Associations of the German Shepherd Dog (WUSV), which was approved in the session of the WUSV on August 30, 1976; and agreements of the Board of Directors and Advisors, from March 23-24, 1991. This standard has been approved by the F.C.I. with number 166.

The German shepherd dog, whose planned breeding began in 1899, was created based on the species of the shepherd dogs existing at that time in Central Germany and Southern Germany, with the fundamental purpose of developing a suitable working dog for high yields. To achieve this goal, the standard of the German shepherd dog breed was established, which refers to its body structure as well as its racial characteristics and temperament.


The height at the cross is 60-65 cms. in males and 55-60 cms. in the females. The length of the back is 10 to 17% greater than the height at the withers.

  • CHARACTER: The German shepherd dog must be balanced, with firm nerves, sure of itself, absolutely serene (except in an irritating or exciting situation), noble, attentive and docile, and must possess fighting spirit and firmness of character, to be suitable as a companion dog, guard and protection.
  • HEAD: It must have a wedge shape, proportionate to the size of its body (its length should be approximately 40% of the height at the withers, without being coarse or too elongated), in its general aspect it is dry and moderately wide between ears.The forehead, seen from the front and from the side, should have a soft undulation without a central or slightly marked groove. The proportion between the face and the forehead is 50% to 50%. The width of the forehead corresponds approximately to its length. The top of the head (seen from above) slides from the ears to the tip of the snout (truffle) through the forehead, with a moderate slope, reaching the face forming a wedge. Both the upper and lower jaw should be strongly developed. The nose should be straight (a sag or ripple are not desirable). The lips are smooth, well closed and dark in color.
  • SNOUT (truffle): It must be black.
  • DENTURE: Must be strong, healthy and complete (42 teeth according to the dental formula). The German shepherd dog bites in scissors, that means that the incisor teeth must act as scissors, acting the incisors of the upper jaw over those of the lower jaw as scissors. They are defects: the bite in clamp; and that the upper incisors are separated from the lower incisors both in front and behind; The implantation of the incisors in a straight line, and the large spaces between the teeth are also disposable. The bones of the jaw must be strong and perfectly developed, so that the teeth are deeply implanted in the gums.
  • EYES: Must be moderately large, almond shaped, somewhat oblique and not prominent. The color of the eyes should be as dark as possible. Clear and sunken eyes are not desirable, as they negatively influence the expression of the dog.
  • EARS: The German shepherd dog has medium-sized ears, and has to be erect, straight and well implanted (neither tilted nor shrunk) ending in a point and facing forward. Ears that bend or hang are considered deficient. When the dog is in motion or at rest, the placement of the ears backwards is not considered a defect.
  • NECK: The neck should be strong, well muscled, with the skin stretched, without loose jowls. Its inclination in relation to the back is approximately 45%.
  • BODY: The upper line runs from the base of the neck, through the well-developed, high and elongated cross and a slightly inclined back (to the horizontal line) to the rump slightly inclined, without visible interruptions. The back is proportionally elongated, firm and strong, and well muscled. The loin is broad, short, strongly developed and well muscled. The croup should be long and slightly inclined (approximately 23 degrees from the horizontal line) and should arrive without interruptions of the upper line until the birth of the tail.
  • CHEST: It should be proportionately wide; the bottom desirably long and notorious. The depth of the chest should be 45 to 48% of the height at the withers. The ribs should be moderately arched. (The excessively arched chest, with the form of a barrel, is a defect, as it is the chest with ribs that are too flat).
  • TAIL: It reaches at least to the hock, but can not exceed half of the metatarsus, in its lower part it has somewhat longer hairs and has to carry it in the form of a moderate arc directed towards the ground. In case of excitement and movement it carries it higher, but without exceeding the horizontal line. Any corrective manipulation of the tail is prohibited.
  • NAILS: The color of the nails in a German Shepherd must always be black, without exceptions, any lack of pigmentation is considered undesirable in a copy of competition. A dog that lives in the field will wear out naturally. If we are in the city it is more complicated. Most likely, they will grow to the point of being annoying to him and to the people he lives with, and in the worst case they make it difficult for him to walk. For all this it will be essential to cut them, but it is a very delicate task (they are not like people’s nails), so it is advisable to go to the vet. If you do this work at home, you should do it with a special dog nail clipper, and only blunt them, since the dogs have irrigation until 3/4 of the nail, so that if you cut more, it hurts; If this happens, you should only cover it with a cotton swab with alcohol for a few seconds.
  • MOVEMENT: The German shepherd dog is a trotter; the measures of their extremities must correspond in their length and angulation and have to be synchronized in such a way that the dog can, without considerable alteration of the dorsal line, move the rear train towards the torso and cover with the front train the same distance . Any tendency to over-angulation of the rear train decreases the firmness and resistance of the dog, and consequently its usefulness for the job. When the proportions between structure and angulations are correct, the result is a good propulsion that allows to cover space and a ground advance on the ground, which transmits the impression of an effortless advance. With the head tilted forward and the tail slightly raised in a regular and calm trot, a line of smooth curvature is formed without interruption, from the tip of the ears, following the nape and the back, to the tip of the tail.
  • SKIN: The skin should be gently peeled off, but without wrinkling.
  • HAIR: The German Shepherd dog is bred in the following varieties of hair, normal double-layered hair and double-layered long hair, both varieties must have sub-fur. * * *Normal double-layered hair (Stockhaar): The hair that covers it must be dense , straight, hard and tight. On the head, including the inside of the ears, on the outside of the extremities on the legs and fingers the hair is short, on the neck it is longer and bushy. In the back part of the extremities the hair stretches to the hock, in the back part of the thigh forms moderate calzones.
    *Long double-layered hair (Langstockhaar): The hair that covers it should be long, silky and not tight, with a tuft on the ears and legs, with thick trousers and a bushy tail with tufts down, short hair on the front of the legs , legs and fingers, neck longer and hair stronger, almost forming a mane. In the back of the legs, the hair extends to the elbow and the hock and in the back of the thighs frank pants are formed.
  • COLORS: Black, black and tan, brown, yellowish to gray, gray with dark spots, and black mask and back. Small white spots not striking on the chest, as well as clear interior parts are allowed, but are not desirable. The tip of the nose (truffle) should always be black. The lack of a mask, the clear and penetrating color of the eyes, clear spots on the chest and inner parts, clear nails and tip of the red tail, are evaluated as lack of pigment. The sub-fur coat shows a slightly grayish tone. The white color is not supported.
  • SIZE / WEIGHT: Males: Height at the withers 60 cms. up to 65 cms.
    Weight 30 kgs. up to 40 kgs.
    Females: Height at the cross 55 cms. up to 60 cms.
    Weight 22 kgs. up to 32 kgs.
  • TESTS: The males should have two testicles of visible normal development, totally located in the scrotum.


Each deviation from the aforementioned points is considered as a defect, whose evaluation must be made in exact proportion to the degree of the deviation.


  1. Deviations from the characteristics of the breed described above that impair fitness for work.
  2. Ear defects: Tilted ears, inserted too low, ears drooping, convergent and shallow.
  3. Considerable pigmentation deficiencies.
  4. Lack of pronounced general firmness.
  5. Denture defects: All deviations from the scissor bite and the dental formula, insofar as they are not excluding defects


  1. Dogs of weak character, aggressive and those that bite.
  2. Dogs with severe HD (dysplasia) checked.
  3. Monorquids, cryptorchid, as well as dogs with visibly disparate or atrophied testicles.
  4. Dogs with serious defects in ears and tail.
  5. Dogs with malformations.
  6. Dogs with dental defects when missing: 1 premolar 3 and another tooth or 1 tusk or 1 premolar 4 or 1 molar 1 or 1 molar 2, or in total 3 or more teeth.
  7. Dogs with deficiencies of jaws: closing of the mouth with separation between the upper and lower incisors greater than 2 mm. Bite forward (Prognathism). Bite in the total area of the incisors.
  8. Dogs with excess or defect of size in more than one centimeter, on what is specified in this standard.
  9. Albinism
  10. White hair color (although eyes and nails are dark).
  11. Long hair without double layer or sub coat.